A new book series edited by a University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa professor will have a big impact on a field studying the smallest of particles.

Department of Physics and Astronomy Professor Klaus Sattler's 21st Century Nanoscience: A Handbook is considered the most comprehensive work in the field of nanoscience, which has developed into a major research area with the production and study of materials on the smallest scale.

"21st Century Nanoscience: A Handbook will be of value for a very broad readership, from students and instructors to professionals in the industry," Sattler said. "Its interdisciplinary content should help engineers and scientists, such as physicists, chemists, biologists, biomedical researchers, industry professionals, governmental scientists, and others whose life and work are related to nanotechnology. It will be an indispensable resource in academic, government and industry libraries worldwide."

More about nanoscience

The field of nanoscience has developed to a major research area with the production and study of materials on the smallest size scale. One nanometer (nm) is a billionth of a meter. A red blood cell, for example, is about 7,000 nm wide and falls into the micron-size range. Much smaller is the strand of DNA, with a diameter of 2.5 nm. The nanoscale is the size range between approximately one to a few hundred nanometers. The Corona virus, for example, has a size of 125 nm and falls into this size range. It has been found in many experiments that the physical and chemical properties of materials substantially change from the macroscale to the nanoscale.

Materials behave differently when their size is reduced to the nanocale. Their atomic and electronic structures generally change leading to different color, conductivity, melting temperatures, hardness, etc. For example. the color of macroscopic gold is yellow, but in the 10-100 nm range, gold particles become red, purple, or green depending on their size and shape. Also, gold which is chemically inert at the macro scale, becomes a catalyst on the nanoscale.

The synthesis of nanomaterials has started around 1980 with the first production of atomic clusters from inert gases, metals and carbon. Since then, nanoscience became a multidisciplinary field with scientist from many fields involved including physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, computer science, and engineering.

More on the handbook

The 21st Century Nanoscience book, just published, has 10 volumes with 518 science contributors, covering the wide range of synthetic processes, properties, as well as applications. It was 4 1/2 years in the making, with three publication and production firms involved, Taylor&Francis in Oxford, England, CRC Press in Boca Raton, Florida, and CodeMantra in Chennai, India, all directed from Prof. Sattler's UH office. It is considered the most comprehensive work in the field of nanoscience. The editor, UH Physics Professor Klaus Sattler, has a laboratory for nanoscience at UH Manoa. He is also the editor of the sister references, the 7-volume Handbook of Nanophysics (2010), Carbon Nanomaterials Sourcebook (2016) and Silicon Nanomaterials Sourcebook (2017), as well as Fundamentals of Picoscience (2014). The new series is an interdisciplinary book describing the many advances across research fields in recent years https://www.routledge.com/21st-Century-Nanoscience-A-Handbook-Ten-Volume-Set/Sattler/p/book/9780815365785

Vol 1. The first volume, the Nanophysics Sourcebook, describes the quantum nature of nanoscience, dynamics at the nanoscale, and theoretical tools for predicting the properties of nanomaterials. It covers the de Broglie nature of ultrasmall systems, nanoscale energy transport, quantum transport, phononic nanostructure, quantum chaotic systems, topological constraint theory, large-scale supercomputer calculations, atomistic simulations of disordered nanoelectronics and metallic nanoglasses.

Vol 2. In volume 2, design strategies for synthesis and fabrication are given. From plasma synthesis and microwave hydrothermal synthesis to eco-friendly methods of bio-fabrication such as plant-mediated synthesis are described, with further subjects of pre-programmed self-assembly, inkjet-printing of nanomaterials, nanostructure-preparation with scanning microscopy probes and nanoscale shape control.

Vol 3. Advanced Methods and Instrumentation, in particular for imaging and spectroscopy are described in volume 3. Major subjects are high- and low-temperature scanning probe microscopy, ultrafast optical pump-probe microscopy, nanotribology, chemical imaging with fluorescent nanosensors, X-ray imaging, helium ion microscopy, hyperspectral Raman imaging, nanoscale mechanical mapping, electron holography for mapping electric fields, and terahertz spectroscopy.

Vol 4. Volume 4 gives results on Low-Dimensional Materials and Morphologies, describing one- and two-dimensional materials, nanoparticles and nanocrystals, nanotubes, nanowires, nanofibers, nanocages, and nanofoam. Among these are graphene nanodot arrays and nanomeshes, aromatic helicenes, endohedral fullerenes, electrospun nanofibers, nanopore structures, metal-oxide nanowire arrays and nanocages.

Vol 5. Volume 5 is entitled Exotic Nanostructures and Quantum Systems. Subjects in this volume are nanoscience in superfluid helium, heptacene and silicene, nanoionics, nanofluids, graphene nanochannels, transport in nanoporous materials, physics of nanomagnets, picosecond magnetization dynamics, nanothermodynamics, and nanothermometry.

Vol 6. Volume 6 is entitled Nanophotonics, Nanoelectronics, and Nanoplasmonics. Described in this volume are polarized nano-optics, nanophotonic circuits, X-ray nanophotonics, optical tweezers, neuromorphic nanoelectronics, single electron electronics, quantum computing with 2D materials, magneto-plasmonics, Coulomb blockade plasmonics, and plasmonic optical antenna.

Vol 7. Volume 7, entitled Bioinspired Systems and Methods, covers advances in biochemistry. biomedical engineering and biomedicine. Some of the subjects in this volume are plant-mediated biosynthesis, bacterial detection with magnetic nanoparticles, nanoscale probes for biological cells, designing biological cells as nanomaterials factories, nanoparticles for bone tissue engineering. nanoparticles for cancer imaging and therapy, and nanoengineering neural cells.

Vol 8. Volume 8, entitled Nanopharmaceuticals, Nanomedicine, and Food Nanoscience, describes research on pharmaceutical drugs, nanoscale medicine, environment and toxicology, public health and safety as well as nanoscience in food and agriculture. Subjects are therapeutic benefits from nanoparticles, smart nanoparticles in drug/gene delivery, DNA nanoswitches and nanomachines, nanoprobes for early diagnosis of cancers, nanovations in neuromedicine, magnetic particle hyperthermia, environmental nanotechnology, risk assessment of nanomaterials in food stuffs, as well as nanobiosensors in agriculture and food.

Vol 9. Volume 9 gives an overview of the many industrial applications, describing methods of materials nanomanufacturing and device fabrication in nanoengineering. More specifically it covers nanostructured networks, photonic-based sensor devices, single-photon devices, nanoparticle optical antennas, nanoscience of cementitious materials, nano superconducting quantum interference device, graphene-based single-electron transistors, self-propelled nanomotors, nanomaterials for water splitting, and biomimetic nanowalkers

Vol 10. Finally, volume 10, entitled Public Policy, Education, and Global Trends, gives examples for policy and innovation, describes education and training in nanosystems, dissemination and communication of scientific results as well as global trends in nanoscience. Further subjects in this volume are innovation and entrepreneurship, training leaders in nanotechnology, teaching nanoscience to high school students, using digital tools in nanoscience education, outreach and training on nanoscience and nanotechnology, diffusion of nanotechnology knowledge, and developing a framework for unifying nanoscience.

The 21st Century Nanoscience book will be of value for a very broad readership, from students and instructors to professionals in the industry. Its interdisciplinary content should help engineers and scientists such as physicists, chemists, biologists, biomedical researchers, industry professionals, governmental scientists, and others whose life and work is related to nanotechnology. It will be an indispensable resource in academic, government, and industry libraries worldwide. The fields impacted by nanoscience extend from materials science and engineering to biotechnology, biomedical engineering, medicine, electrical engineering, pharmaceutical science, computer technology, aerospace engineering, mechanical engineering, food science, and beyond. Since many research and engineering groups at UH are working in related areas, information on the subjects in the book should be of value for the UH community.